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Ecotoxicol Environ Saf, 11: 9–14. Biochem J, 102: 712–718. Davies BE (1993) Radish as an indicator plant for derelict land: Uptake of zinc at toxic concentrations. Feinglos MN & Jegasothy BV (1979) "Insulin" allergy due to zinc. En general, la toxicidad del zinc en las plantas provoca trastornos en el metabolismo que son diferentes de los que produce su deficiencia. Spender QW, Cronk CE, Charney EB, & Stallings VA (1989) Assessment of linear growth of children with cerebral palsy. Hopkin SP & Martin MH (1984) Assimilation of zinc, cadmium, lead and copper by the centipede Lithobius variegatus (Chilopoda). The no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) for the same parameter was 0.19 mg/litre. Other acute toxicity test results reported range from 0.04 to 2.29 mg/litre zinc for daphnids (Daphnia, Ceriodaphnia and Moina) to 28.1 and 62.6 mg/litre for a snail species and a caddisfly, respectively. Es capaz de reducir la mayoría de los otros estados metálicos y, por consiguiente, se utiliza como electrodo en pilas secas y en hidrometalurgia. La demi-vie biologique du zinc est de 4 à 50 jours chez le rat, selon la dose administrée, et elle est d'environ 280 jours chez l'Homme. Stuttgart, Enke, pp 97–118 (in German). Symptoms of zinc toxicity in plants differ from those of zinc deficiency, with coralloid rather than extended roots and curled rather than mottled leaves. Cherian L & Gupta VK (1992) Spectrophotometric determination of zinc using 4-carboxyphenyldiazoaminoazobenzene and its application in complex materials. Jones R (1983) Zinc and cadmium in lettuce and radish grown in soils collected near electrical transmission (hydro) towers. Following the induction of hypercholesterolaemia in rats by administration of a high ratio of ingested zinc to copper (Klevay, 1973) and the identification of an association between the mortality rate for coronary heart disease and the zinc:copper ratio in cows’ milk in 47 cities in the USA (Klevay, 1975), it was hypothesized that the zinc:copper ratio has important influences on processes related to coronary heart disease (Klevay, 1975, 1980, 1983). Meranger JC, Subramanian KS, & Chalifoux C (1981) Survey for cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, zinc, calcium, and magnesium in Canadian drinking water. El Bassam N, Dambroth M, & Loughman BC (1990) Genetic aspects of plant mineral nutrition. Nutr Res, 2: 409- 415. Anderson et al. Milliken J, Waugh D, & Kadish ME (1963) Acute interstitial pulmonary fibrosis caused by a smoke bomb. Naturwiss, 81: 401–405 (in German). The toxicity of zinc at 100 mg/litre was exerted during stages 3–6. These include the chemical form of the nutrient (speciation), the composition of the food ingested (e.g., fibre and phytic acid content), the body stores of the nutrient and related chemicals, the physiological status of the organism, and nutrient and nutrient–dietary interactions (WHO, 1996b). More often than toxicity, zinc deficiency is reported from environments where humans have grown plants that are not adapted and/or have not been properly selected, ranging from crops and pastures in Australia (Donald & Prescott, 1975), Africa (Cottenie et al., 1981), Asia (Katyal & Ponnamperuma, 1974) and North America (Lingle & Holmberg, 1957), to fruit trees (SSSA, 1990) and forest trees. When major dietary zinc sources are unrefined cereals, nuts and legumes, absorption is low, owing primarily to the inhibitory effect on zinc absorption of phytate and, to a lesser extent, Maillard browning products and dietary fibre. 2 assorted pieces, 1/2 candy bar, 2 tbsp. Cincinnati, Ohio, Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, US EPA, pp 83–122. (1988) studied the cellular distribution of zinc in slugs (Arion ater) exposed to dietary zinc. Washington DC, US Environmental Protection Agency Risk Assessment Forum (EPA/630/R-92/001). 683). Zinc deficiency appears to be a major contributing factor in this syndrome. farrow and ball pigeon kitchen bottomless mimosas denver wednesday zagotta law chicago fljotavik sigur ros mp3 dirk schweer waake pret beton armeanca centrum advertisement ... patio stone ideas on a budget vendoksin kapi forum style me pretty nursery zelf broek met scheuren maken ... how far does sound travel in one second kiton sartorio suits easy duplicate finder 4.3 crack powerfruit cover stock … Cavan KR, Gibson RS, Grazioso CF, Isalgue AM, Ruz M, & Solomons NW (1993) Growth and body composition of periurban Guatemalan children in relation to zinc status: a cross-sectional study. The number and duration of impetigo episodes were greater in the group of infants fed the zinc-supplemented formula (1.31 ± 1.1 infectious episodes/infant compared to 0.55 ± 0.8 in controls). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 75(11): 5660–5664. Deficient, non-anaemic rats at 24 °C became hypothermic with, inter alia, decreased concentration of triiodothyronine in plasma. Une exposition de brève durée par la voie respiratoire à des concentrations d'oxyde de zinc > 5,9 mg/m3 a provoqué une inflammation et des lésions pulmonaires chez des cobayes et des rats. The zinc concentration in the barley increased with increasing total zinc concentration in the soil. S. typhimurium (TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537, TA1538), S. typhimurium (TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537), lambda prophage induction Trp+ reversion comutagenesis. Bertine KK & Goldberg ED (1971) Fossil fuel combustion and the major sedimentary cycle. Cherry FF, Sandstead HH, Rojas P, Johnson LK, Batson HK, & Wang XB (1989) Adolescent pregnancy: associations among body weight, zinc nutrition, and pregnancy outcome. Harzer G & Kauer H (1982) Binding of zinc to casein. Also referred to as Latin or Spanish Corn Fritters, can be prepared with or without cheese. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf, 24: 131–143. El zinc es importante para la estabilidad de las membranas, en más de 300 enzimas y en el metabolismo de las proteínas y los ácidos nucleicos. Based on these findings, zinc was shown to be essential for human dark adaptation (Morrison et al., 1978). Rapid bio-inactivation of zinc, for instance compartmentation into vacuoles, may result in elevated BCFs with no difference in the health of the organism (Mathys, 1977). Table 32. Johnson PE, Hunt CD, Milne DB, & Mullen LK (1993) Homeostatic control of zinc metabolism in men: zinc excretion and balance in men fed diets low in zinc. Foster DM, Aamodt RL, Henkin RI, & Berman M (1979) Zinc metabolism in humans: a kinetic model. At low luminal zinc concentrations the binding of zinc is to specific sites, whereas at higher concentrations a non-specific binding occurs (Smith et al., 1978; Davies, 1980; Smith & Cousins, 1980; Flanagan et al., 1983; Istfan et al., 1983; Menard & Cousins, 1983; Cousins, 1989; Lee et al., 1989b; Oestreicher & Cousins, 1989; Tacnet et al., 1990; Gunshin et al., 1991; Hempe & Cousins, 1991, 1992). Zinc in human biology. Ragaini RC, Ralston HR, & Roberts N (1977) Environmental trace metal contamination in Kellogg, Idaho, near a lead smelting complex. Grant et al. Hempe JM & Cousins RJ (1992) Cysteine-rich intestinal protein and intestinal metallothionein: an inverse relationship as a conceptual model for zinc absorption in rats. J Am Pharm Assoc, 42: 700–702. Beitr Infusionsther, 27: 53–65. Environ Toxicol Chem, 13(12): 2031–2041. Table 13. Persons with adequate nutritional levels of zinc absorb approximately 20–30% of all ingested zinc, while greater proportions of dietary zinc are absorbed in zinc-deficient subjects if presented in a bioavailable form. Redpath KJ & Davenport J (1988) The effect of copper, zinc and cadmium on the pumping rate of Mytilus edulis L. Aquat Toxicol, 13: 217–226. No marked adverse effects on food consumption, body weight gains, haematological parameters, fur quality or survival were observed. Richmond (1992) decreased the mortality of pups delivered of copper-deficient dams by injection of oxytocin at term. The number of days required depends on the day-to-day variation in zinc intakes for the population group under study. Spencer H, Asmussen CR, Holtzman RB, & Kramer L (1979) Metabolic balances of cadmium, copper, manganese, and zinc in man. Rozendaal, VRBC, pp1–50. Environ Technol Lett, 10(2): 195–200. New York, Springer, pp 41–67. Suedel BC, Boraczek JA, Peddicord RK, Clifford PA, & Dillon TM (1994) Trophic transfer and biomagnification potential of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. 1.1K likes. No adverse effects on survival, fertility, fecundity, growth or the subsequent survival of smolts transferred to seawater were observed. Chez des insuffisants rénaux en dialyse, on a constaté l'apparition de symptômes d'une intoxication par le zinc due à l'utilisation d'eau conservée dans des réservoirs galvanisés. Rachlin JW, Jensen TE, & Warkentine B (1983) The growth response of the diatom Navicula incerta to selected concentrations of the metals: cadmium, copper, lead and zinc. Nevertheless, because functional physiological tests are not very specific, they must always be interpreted in combination with a biochemical test. Acute zinc toxicity has been reported in patients following kidney dialysis (Gallery et al., 1972; Petrie & Row, 1977). Etant donné que le zinc est un élément essentiel, qu'il est relativement peu toxique pour l'Homme et que les sources d'exposition humaine sont limitées, il apparaît que pour des sujets en bonne santé qui ne sont pas professionnellement exposés à cet élément, le risque d'une carence zincique est potentiellement plus important que celui qui découle de l'exposition ordinaire dans l'environnement. In muscle of marine fish, such as the northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) and the Atlantic menhaden (Brevortia tyrannus), concentrations of up to 20- 25 mg/kg fw were measured (US National Academy of Sciences, 1979). Stellen- und Ausbildungsangebote in Bamberg in der Jobbörse von Sewage sludge applied to arable land in Ohio, USA was found to contain zinc at a concentration of 866 mg/kg dw (Levine et al., 1989). Size distribution and chemical composition of condensation aerosol particles generated in metallurgical plants in Germany during high-temperature processes were studied by Reiter & Poetzl (1985). Moreover, soils are frequently contaminated by a mixture of metals. Washington DC, National Association State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, pp 39–43. Davies NT (1980) Studies on the absorption of zinc by rat intestine. The test is not appropriate for pre-school children who are too young to perform it accurately. Water Res, 23(10): 1247–1266. Pacyna JM, Bartonova A, Cornille P, & Maenhaut W (1989) Modelling of long-range transport of trace elements. Bogden KS, Holding KJ, Denny TN, Guaino MA, Krieger LM, & Holland BK (1988) Zinc and immunocompetence in elderly people: effects on zinc supplementation for 3 months. Colin JL, Jaffrezo JL, & Gros JM (1990) Solubility of major species in precipitation: factors of variation. No significant effects on survival or reproduction were reported at the two lower concentrations. Zinc deficiency has been reported in a wide variety of agricultural plants and animals with severe effects on all stages of reproduction, growth and tissue proliferation. Effects of cyst age, temperature, and salinity on the sensitivity of Brachionus calyciflorus. Detection of injury was stated to correlate well with pulmonary lavage fluid changes (Conner et al., 1988). Am J Clin Nutr, 31: 633–637. In healthy humans, only small amounts (» 0.5 mg/day) are excreted via urine (Halsted et al., 1974; Elinder et al., 1978). EC50 values were found to be 0.26, 0.38, 0.31 and 0.028 mg/litre in the sperm test for the four species, respectively. Klerks PL (1990) Adaptations to metals in animals. Plasma zinc levels in rats receiving zinc supplementation for 8 h were similar to those of the control group (114 µg/100 ml), while levels in rats receiving zinc supplementation for 24 h were significantly increased (182 µg/100 ml). Le zinc n'existe pas à l'état métallique dans la nature. This structural arrangement differs significantly from that of the TFIIIA type of zinc finger (Pavletich & Pabo, 1991), and has been termed the "zinc twist" (Vallee et al., 1991). Luten JB, Bourquet JB, Burggraaf W, Rauchbaar AB, & Rus J (1986) Trace metals in mussels (Mytilus edulis) from the Waddenzee, coastal North Sea and the estuaries of the Ems, western and eastern scheldt. Biological pathway of metal retardation. Pediatr Res, 6: 119–125. It was postulated that the reduced viability of lambs may have been due to fetal malnutrition caused by the reduced maternal food intake and food utilization, or alternatively to direct toxicity of zinc to the fetus (Campbell & Mills, 1979). The pancreatic islet cells in treated mice were hypertrophied and contained an increased number of secretory granules; however, plasma glucose and insulin levels remained comparable to those in control animals. Characterization of soils. In mineralized areas these values can be exceeded. = not given. As a result of chemical weathering of minerals, soluble zinc compounds, such as zinc sulfate, are formed which may be transferred to surface waters especially at low pH levels (Perwak et al., 1980). In: Bernhard M, Brinckman FE, & Sadler PJ eds. Upon binding to the respective hormone, the activated receptor also binds to a DNA element known as the hormone response element, and modulates gene transcription (Tsai & O’Malley, 1994). Pennington JAT & Young BE (1991) Total diet study nutritional elements, 1982–1989. J Nutr, 110: 316–323. Adeniyi FA & Heaton FW (1980) The effect of zinc deficiency on alkaline phosphatase (EC and its isoenzymes. Aquat Toxicol, 7: 135–144. Mount DR, Barth AK, Garrison TD, Barten KA, & Hockett JR (1994) Dietary and waterborne exposure of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to copper, cadmium, lead and zinc using a live diet. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 88: 9984–9988. Lykken GI, Mahalko J, Johnson PE, Miline D, Sandstead HH, Garcia WJ, Dintzis FR, & Inglett GE (1986) Effect of browned and unbrowned corn products intrinsically labelled with zinc on absorption of zinc in humans. Fed Proc, 45: 1474–1479. Minor degenerative changes in the brain, accompanied by elevated neurosecretion and increased activity in the neurohypophysis were seen in rats exposed intragastrically to zinc oxide for 10 days at 100 mg/day (Kozik, 1981). There are no showers - "sponge baths" are what serves here. Wandzilak TM & Benson RW (1977) Yeast RNA polymerase III: A zinc metalloenzyme. Leach tests, although they may provide a prediction of potential environmental risk, do not accurately measure the bioavailable fraction. Dreosti IE & Hurley LS (1975) Depressed thymidine kinase activity in zinc deficient embryos. Am J Clin Nut, 39(3): 446–451. The reverse interaction, namely the effect of copper on zinc status, is less clear. 0, 4 or 500 mg/kg in diet for 8 weeks to weanlings. Environ Res, 26(1): 81–86. The interaction of zinc with other metals, such as copper, iron and calcium, has been reviewed in some detail elsewhere (Walsh et al., 1994; Bremner & Beattie, 1995). Korver RM & Sprague JB (1989) Zinc avoidance by fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas): computerized tracking and greater ecological relevance. La concentración letal aguda para los peces de agua dulce es del orden de 0,066- 2,6 mg/litro; la gama para los peces marinos es de 0,19- 17,66 mg/litro. Francis JC & Harrison FW (1988) Copper and zinc toxicity in Ephydatia fluviatilis Porifera Spongillidae. Mutat Res, 90: 91–109. Table 35. Acute toxicity of zinc to plants grown in hydroponic culture or soil, primary leaf physiology and zinc concentration, NOEC = no-observed-effect concentration; dw = dry weight. Henry CL & Harrison RB (1992) Fate of trace metals in sewage sludge compost. Eur J Clin Nutr, 42(8): 709–714. However, in hard water (100 mg/litre, CaCO3) zinc was either inhibited by all metals (at a concentration of 1 mg/litre) or there was a weak synergism (at 0.5 mg/litre). Dinnel et al. They found that 50% of zinc was organically bound and there were no differences in the zinc speciation or zinc loading of the different sludge types. J Am Coll Nutr, 4: 73- 82. Br J Nutr, 48: 241- 248. Kumar S & Pant SC (1984) Comparative effects of the sublethal poisoning of zinc, copper and lead on the gonads of the teleost Puntius conchonius Ham. Singh & Låg (1976) grew barley (Hordeum vulgare) in soil sampled from an area near a zinc-smelting plant. As excess zinc impairs utilization of copper and other trace elements, research on the potential benefits of adding copper and/or iron to oral zinc preparations is needed. Nemcsók et al. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 43: 329–336. In most circumstances, over 95% of this comes from food, with negligible amounts from air, and between <1% and 10% from drinking-water. The zinc flux was found to increase with decreasing pH (Ågren, 1990). In: Page AL, Logan TJ, & Ryan JA eds. Beliles RP (1994) Zinc, Zn. Le zinc présent dans l'atmosphère par suite de processus naturels provient d'émissions ignées et de feux de forêt. Centipedes from a contaminated site survived longer than those from an uncontaminated site when both populations were fed on woodlice hepatopancreas with high concentrations of metals. An increase in water hardness from 50 to 200 mg/litre (CaCO3), and the addition of humic acid (1.5 mg/litre) significantly reduced the toxic effect of zinc on brood size. Environ Sci Technol, 27: 520–529. Further symptoms can include dermatitis, alopecia and testicular atrophy (Macapinlac et al., 1966, 1968; Chesters & Quarterman, 1970; Wallwork et al., 1981). Zinc sulfate (5 mmol/litre), which is an almost-lethal dose) fed to adult Drosophila melanogaster did not increase the incidence of sex-linked recessive lethal mutations when tested in three successive broods (Gocke et al., 1981). In women with complications such as abnormal labour or atonic bleeding, serum zinc concentrations had been significantly reduced during early pregnancy. Haesaenen E, Lipponen M, Kattainen R, Markkanen K, Minkkinen P, & Brjukhanov P (1990) Elemental concentrations of aerosol samples from the Baltic Sea area. Milne et al. ILZSG (1995) Lead and zinc statistics. In: Southward AJ ed. The amount of zinc extracted increased with increasing rates of added zinc and increasing amounts of added phosphorus. Atmos Environ, 27A: 685–695. Some studies have examined microbial or abiotic transformations of zinc compounds which can result in a change in zinc speciation (Touvinen, 1988). Heckel J (1995) Using Barkla polarized x-ray radiation in energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (EDXRF). J Zoo Anim Med, 16: 68–69. Van Assche C & Jansen G (1978) [Application of selectively acting cation exchanges on soils contaminated with heavy metals.] The derived values are regarded as ambient levels from which no detrimental effects are expected. Jameson S (1976) Effects of zinc deficiency in human reproduction. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol, 25: 27–35. A group of 18 female volunteers participated in a 10-week, single-blind dietary supplementation study designed to investigate the effect of zinc supplementation on iron, copper and zinc status. VMM (1994) [1993 Annual report of the surface water measurements.] Zinc in soils and plants, Dordrecht, Kluwer. Zinc is an element and therefore cannot be biodegraded, in contrast to zinc compounds. IARC (1987) Beryllium and beryllium compounds and chromium and chromium compounds. There were no differences in zinc content of the spiders fed on woodlice from their own site, and those spiders starved throughout the experiment. Hatching time delay was found to be the most sensitive parameter, with an NOEC of 0.5 mg/litre. Positive correlations between hair zinc concentrations and serum zinc are only observed in chronic, severe zinc deficiency in the absence of confounding factors. chips), Cannelloni,spinach and cheese,with cream sauce, Cannelloni,spinach and cheese,with tomato sauce, Caponate(eggplant appetizer),store-bought, Cappuccino,ready-made,from machine,any flavor, Celery soup,cream of,canned(made with low-fat or skim milk), Celery soup,cream of,canned(made with whole milk), Celery soup,cream of, low-fat,canned(made with low-fat or skim milk), Cereal,Cold,any type (other than those listed below), Cheese,cheddar,soup,canned(made with low-fat or skim milk), Cheese,cheddar,soup,canned(made with whole milk). Carpenter JM & Ray JH (1969) The effect of zinc chloride on the production of mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. Significant reductions in cocoon production were observed at zinc carbonate and sulfate concentrations of 500 mg/kg dw. Neuhauser EF, Loehr RC, Milligan DL, & Malecki MR (1985) Toxicity of metals to the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Hoogenraad TU, Van den Hamer CLA, & Van Hattum J (1984) Effective treatment of Wilson’s disease with oral zinc sulphate: two case reports. Beyer WN & Anderson A (1985) Toxicity to woodlice of zinc and lead oxides added to soil litter. Malle K-G (1992) [Zinc in the environment.] Porter KG, McMaster D, Elmes ME, & Love AHG (1977) Anemia and low serum copper during zinc therapy. Machholz & Lewerenz (1989) reported zinc concentrations of 301 mg/kg for contaminated lettuce compared to 77 mg/kg in uncontaminated lettuce. Scherz H, Kloos G, & Senser F (1986) Food composition and nutrition tables 1986/87. Prasad AS (1988) Clinical spectrum and diagnostic aspects of human zinc deficiency. Zinc-deprived 10-day-old suckling rats showed suppression of incorporation of thymidine into their DNA (Sandstead et al., 1972). II. Immune function was shown to be adversely affected by zinc deficiency. London, Springer, pp 281–296. Oncorhynchus En la toxicidad del zinc pueden influir factores tanto bióticos como abióticos, como la edad y el tamaño del organismo, la exposición anterior, la dureza del agua, el pH, el carbono orgánico disuelto y la temperatura. Swenerton H & Hurley L (1980) Zinc deficiency in rhesus and bonnet monkeys, including effects on reproduction. No significant changes in the liver:body weight ratios were observed. Based on the available information, it is not possible to define a no-effect level for pulmonary inflammation from exposure to zinc oxide fume. Studies that met these criteria are so indicated where appropriate in the text and tables that follow. J Lab Clin Med, 61: 537- 549. Grimshaw DL, Lewin J, & Fuge R (1976) Seasonal and short-term variations in the concentration and supply of dissolved zinc to polluted aquatic environments. Fed Proc, 27(1): 199- 204. In a comparative study with zinc oxide and zinc sulfate in rats with full-thickness skin excision, the application of zinc oxide resulted in a sustained delivery of zinc ions, while zinc sulfate delivered zinc ions rapidly, resulting in decreasing wound-tissue zinc levels. Frostegård Å, Tunlid A, & Bååth E (1993) Phospholipid fatty acid composition, biomass, and activity of microbial communities from two soil types experimentally exposed to different heavy metals. Zinc concentrations were higher in lettuce, carrots and grass grown in compost and the compost-soil mixture than in plants grown in either the control or fertilized soils. Giroux EL, Durieux M, & Schechter PJ (1976) A study of zinc distribution in human serum. J Exper Bot, 28(105): 1029–1036. Powder coatings to recycling. ), Scallops,fried,frozen (prepared without fat). The incidence of oesophageal tumours induced by methylbenzylnitrosamine (MBN) was higher in rats fed diets low in zinc, at 3 mg/kg compared to rats fed diets containing 60 mg/kg (Fong et al., 1978). Sci Total Environ, 49: 89–99. Table 36. Can J Microbiol, 21: 1855–1865. J Am Med Assoc, 244(17): 1960–1961. Spear PA (1981) Zinc in the aquatic environment: chemistry, distribution, and toxicology. Rath FW, Kortge R, Haase P, & Bismarck M (1991) The influence of zinc administration on the development of experimental lung metastases after an injection of tumour cells into the tail vein of rats. Reversible clinical signs and radiological effects, including aches and pains, dyspnoea, dry cough, lethargy, neutrophil leukocytosis, pyrexia, and widespread abnormality of both lung fields, with multiple nodules measuring 3–4 mm and becoming confluent and ill-defined in some areas, were seen when an individual was exposed to zinc fumes in a shipyard over a 3-week period (Brown, 1988). Am J Clin Nutr, 32: 1867–1875. Environ Technol, 13: 695–700. Total concentrations in the aquatic and soil environments alone, including food, are not useful for estimating bioavailability. 1,146 Followers, 282 Following, 11 Posts - See Instagram photos and videos from abdou now online (@abdoualittlebit) Cellular distribution of zinc and calcium. Zinc tolerance was estimated by the ability of bacteria to grow on media amended with zinc (4–512 mg/litre). Hamilton DL, Bellamy JEC, Valberg JD, & Valberg LS (1978) Zinc, cadmium, and iron interactions during intestinal absorption in iron-deficient mice. Periods of 6 weeks or less are probably too short for a response, since hair zinc reflects only chronic changes in zinc status (Greger & Geissler, 1978; Lane et al., 1982). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf, 17: 333–338. Am J Physiol, 241: F487- F494. A comparison of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic metals in vitro. Quality assurance for environmental analysis. Masters BA, Kelly EJ, Quaife CJ, & Brinster RL (1994) Targeted disruption of metallothionein I and II genes increases sensitivity to cadmium. D   J Nutr Biochem, 3: 387–391. Des concentrations plus élevées peuvent être attribuées à la présence naturelle de minerais enrichis en zinc, à des sources anthropogéniques ou encore à des processus biotiques ou abiotiques. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 17(1): 66–73. Des études de génotoxicité ont été effectuées sur divers systèmes. When the amount of copper lost in sweat (>0.3 mg daily) is considered in the interpretation of the data (Jacob et al., 1979; Milne et al., 1983), it is evident that intakes of 23 mg of zinc daily placed the subjects at risk of negative copper retention. Ces effets indésirables se manifestent à partir de 20 µg/litre. Water Res, 9: 631–636. /- iL Page [unnumbered] Page [unnumbered] F I PINO-ENGLISH VOCABUL:A RY WIT'H PR1'kLA_1'1GA [ J IC XXAMPILES 0F Fl IPINO AND IiWNGLISH GRAMMARS B y EUSEB10 T. DALUZ, Graduate Teacher by … Mar Environ Res, 24: 135–139. Severe maternal deprivation (zinc at < 1 mg/kg in the diet) on days 14–20 of gestation caused stunting and a decrease in brain cell number in fetuses (McKenzie et al., 1975). Microbiol Ecol, 16: 213–231. Int Rev Neurobiol (Suppl), 1: 7–51. 1 slice (3 1/2" x 2 1/2" x 1 1/2") or 5 oz. Blood samples for zinc analysis must also be taken carefully to avoid contamination from sources such as preservatives, evacuated tubes, rubber stoppers and anticoagulants.

It’s perfect for topping pastas, making pesto, sprinkling atop eggplant and broiling. New York, John Wiley & Sons, pp 835–836. Lancet, 1: 283–288. Zinc in the environment. Mart L (1979) Prevention of contamination and other occurring risks in voltammetric trace metal analysis of natural waters. New York, John Wiley, pp 297-335. Chaney et al. It has been established that, although the T-cell:B-cell ratio is unaffected, the total number of lymphocytes is significantly reduced in zinc-deficient mice (King & Fraker, 1991). Glutathione may be involved in the release of zinc from intracellular protein ligands and its transfer to the blood by forming complexes in the mucosa, which pass by passive diffusion across basolateral membranes (Foulkes, 1993). Washington DC, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 440/5-87/003) (Fiche). Plant Physiol, 111: 1119–1125. Maltby L & Naylor C (1990) Preliminary observations on the ecological relevance of the Gammarus ‘scope for growth’ assay: effect of zinc on reproduction. J Nutr, 195(11): 1486–1489. Aamodt RL, Rumble WF, Johnston GS, Foster O, & Henkin RI (1979) Zinc metabolism in humans after oral and intravenous administration of Zn-69m. In a second experiment it was reported that snails fed a bacterially contaminated diet absorbed more zinc than snails fed a sterile diet. Weinheim, VCH, pp 149–177. The fact that zinc, as an essential metal, is naturally concentrated by living organisms means that the BCF for zinc bears no relationship to toxicity. Carter JP, Grivetti LE, Davis JT, Nasiff S, Mansour A, Mousa WA, Atta AE, Patwardhan VN, Abdel Moneim M, Abdou IA, & Darby WJ (1969) Growth and sexual development of adolescent Egyptian village boys. In: Batley GE, ed. Henstock ME (1996) The recycling of non-ferrous metals. No es probable la lixiviación del zinc a partir del suelo, debido a su adsorción sobre la arcilla y la materia orgánica. Ohnesorge FK & Wilhelm M (1991) Zinc. Nature, 276: 70–71. The concept of bioaccumulation was originally designed to determine the accumulation of a substance/element in biota in comparison to its occurrence in an environmental compartment, i.e., water, soil or sediment. Am J Clin Nutr, 56(1): 50–57. In: Mertz W ed. Findings of infertility, thyroid abnormalities, pancreatic changes, coagulation defects and bone pathology in experiments using increasingly high doses of zinc may impair copper utilization. I got about 4 hrs sleep on the plane and am beginning to feel sort of dopy. Berg JM (1990) Zinc finger domains: hypotheses and current knowledge. Three parameters of microbial activities in soil have been studied: mineralization of macronutrients (N, S); soil respiration as a parameter of the mineralization of organic compounds; and general soil activity (dehydrogenase). In the European Union, the maximum zinc concentration permitted in biosolids (sludge) for application to agricultural soils cannot raise the zinc level above 300 mg/kg of dry soil (Berrow & Reaves, 1984). Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press, pp 99–110. In the position of balance, there is homeostasis, with optimum health. This figure is equivalent to 2.0 g of zinc in the soft tissues of an adult male and 1.2 g in the soft tissues of an adult female, as determined from lean body mass. Schwabe JWR, Neuhaus D, & Rhodes D (1990) Solution structure of the DNA-binding domain of the oestrogen receptor. Mitchell SD & Fretz TA (1977) Cadmium and zinc toxicity in white pine, red maple, and Norway spruce. Pour les adultes, les valeurs vont de 6,7 à 15 mg par jour dans la tranche d'âge 19- 50 ans, à 7,3- 15 mg par jour chez la femme enceinte- en supposant un régime alimentaire offrant une biodisponibilité moyenne- et à 11,7- 19 mg par jour chez la mère allaitante, selon le stade. J Fish Res Board Can, 33: 1939–1945. Severe maternal zinc deprivation throughout nursing impaired growth of suckling pups and subsequently increased errors by nutritionally rehabilitated offspring in maze tests (Lokken et al., 1973; Halas et al., 1983). Reproductive performance was severely impaired in the highest dose group, with increased incidence of non-viable lambs, defined as lambs which were aborted, stillborn or died within 7 days of birth. Courpron C (1967) Détermination des constantes de stabilité des complexes organo-métalliques des sols. En 1994, la production mondiale de zinc a été de 7 089 000 tonnes et la consommation de zinc métallique a atteint 6 895 000 tonnes. Am J Clin Nutr, 48: 655–663. La dose sans effet observable (NOEL)- en prenant en compte l'effet sur la croissance et l'anémie imputables à la présence de sulfate de zinc dans l'alimentation- a été trouvée inférieure à 100 mg/kg chez le rat. Bunzl & Schimmack (1989) calculated the Kd value for zinc in the organic and mineral horizon of podzol forest soil. Florence TM (1992) Trace element speciation by anodic stripping voltammetry. However, it is the level of zinc on respirable particulates and absorption from the lung that will determine the amount absorbed (see Chapter 6). Animals deficient in copper are infertile (Mertz, 1987). In: Grayson M ed. GSC (1995) Geological Survey of Canada. J. Pediatrics, 87: 93–96. J Nutr, 113: 462–469. Mol Biol, 214: 765–779. Gyorffy EJ & Chan H (1992) Copper deficiency and microcytic anemia resulting from prolonged ingestion of over-the-counter zinc. A zinc:copper ratio of about 10 had an adverse effect on copper retention that was not evident with a ratio of about 3.5. However, in another study, it was shown that the ability of lymphocytes to proliferate and to produce interleukins and mitogenic-stimulated antibody responses was normal in zinc-deficient mice (Cook-Mills & Fraker, 1993). Houba C, Remacle J, Bubois D, & Thorez J (1983) Factors affecting the concentrations of cadmium, zinc, copper and lead in the sediments of the Vesdre River. Reece RL, Dickson DB, & Burrowes PJ (1986) Zinc toxicity (new wire disease) in aviary birds. La ingesta diaria media de zinc con el agua de bebida se estima en <0,2 mg/día. MacLean (1974) studied the uptake of zinc by maize (Zea mays), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and alfalfa ((Medicago sativa) grown successively (for 6 weeks, 5 weeks and 16 weeks, respectively) in pots with soil of varying zinc concentrations. Bunzl K & Schimmack W (1989) Associations between the fluctuations of the distribution coefficients of Cs, Zn, Sr, Co, Cd, Ce, Ru, Tc and I in the upper two horizons of a podzol forest soil. Environ Res, 25: 317–324. Shehata & Whitton (1981) reported that blue-green algae are often frequent in waters with very high levels of zinc, and laboratory assays have shown that these algae are much more resistant to zinc than most isolates from sites lacking zinc enrichment. Plusieurs valeurs anormales concordantes sont plus fiables qu'une seule valeur aberrante pour diagnostiquer une carence en zinc. Maternal body weights, food intake, gestation period and the number of viable young per litter were unaffected by the increased zinc levels in the diet, either at birth or on day 14 of lactation. Water Res, 11: 681–687. In a chronic study (Aughey et al., 1977), C3H mice were administered zinc sulfate in the drinking-water at a concentration of 0.5 g/litre for 14 months. J Nutr, 122: 89–95. Aust J Chem, 29: 1649–1656. Castillo-Duran C, Rodriguez A, Venegas G, Alvarez P, & Icaza G (1995) Zinc supplementation and growth of infants born small for gestational age. Gallery EDM, Blomfield J, & Dixon SR (1972) Acute zinc toxicity in haemodialysis. Ranges reported were: parenchyma, 12.8–89.9 µg/g dry tissue; membrane, 21.4–80.3 µg/g dry tissue; and cord, 13.7- 97.2 µg/g dry tissue (Centeno et al., 1996). The lowest dose of zinc that affects lipid metabolism is ill-defined, but it was approximately twice the US recommended daily allowance. Batchelor RP, Fehnel JW, Thompson RM, & Drinker KR (1926) A clinical and laboratory investigation of the effect of metallic zinc, of zinc oxide, and of zinc sulphide upon health of workmen. Levels of zinc in the diverse facilities worldwide that manufacture, utilize or repair zinc and zinc compounds vary widely (see section 5.3) and are largely dependent upon the quality of industrial hygiene practices. Se han realizado estudios de genotoxicidad en diversos sistemas. Harmens H, Gusmao NG, Den Hartog PR, Verkleij JAC, & Ernst WHO (1993a) Uptake and transport of zinc in zinc-sensitive and zinc-tolerant Silene vulgaris. Finally, an inverse relationship has been observed in many biological organisms between the BCF and external water concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr, 28: 764–774. These effects were reported to diminish with time, indicating rapid elimination of zinc from the body. Get dinner on the table with Food Network's best recipes, videos, cooking tips and meal ideas from top chefs, shows and experts. Ernst WHO, Verkleij JAC, & Schat H (1990) Evolutionary biology of metal resistance in Silene vulgaris. Acute zinc toxicity data for two species of freshwater fish met the minimal requirements (Table 39). This value may only be appropriate for morning fasting blood samples. Zoller WH, Gladney ES, & Duce RA (1974) Atmospheric concentrations and sources of trace metals at the South Pole. Zinc concentrations in air are summarized in Table 10. Boca Raton FL, CRC Press, pp 77–116. Kraak et al. The relationship between intake and health is affected by physiological factors (homeostasis) and by extrinsic factors that affect the availability of zinc for absorption and utilization or that interfere with the metabolism of zinc and biochemical processes that require zinc. Vranken G, Tiré C, & Heip C (1988) The toxicity of paired metal mixtures to the nematode Monhystera disjuncta (Bastian, 1865). In natural fresh water concentrations rarely exceed 40 µg/litre (Spear, 1981); Bowen (1979) reported a medium background value of 15 µg/litre, with a range of < 1–100 µg/litre. Das ist unser Motto. Water Air Soil Pollut, 19: 389–395. stat* = static renewal conditions (water changed at regular intervals). J Wildl Dis, 12: 263–270. Rauser WE (1978) Early effects of phytotoxic burdens of cadmium, cobalt, nickel, and zinc in white beans. A un pH superior a 8 puede precipitar. (1989) Effect of zinc exposure on subsequent acute tolerance to heavy metals in rainbow trout. In general, zinc shows a low toxicity to animals, but at high exposure levels it can interact with other trace elements, especially copper, resulting in toxicity, which is usually due to depletion of these elements, and leading to nutritional deficiencies. La résorption du zinc par la voie percutanée peut s'opérer en présence d'oxyde ou de chlorure de zinc et elle augmente en cas de carence zincique. Margins of safety of < 1.0 are usually indicative of a higher potential for risk and may require further evaluation. Bodar CWM, Zee AVD, Voogt PA, Wynne H, & Zander DI (1989) Toxicity of heavy metals to early life stages of Daphnia magna. Environ Toxicol Chem, 12(8): 1441–1453. Comp Biochem Physiol, 75C(1): 141–144. Lipids, 22(12): 1035–1040. Leukocytes have a shorter half-life than erythrocytes and should therefore reflect changes in zinc status over a shorter time-period. The condition was stated to be consistent with copper deficiency; it spread over much of the body within a few weeks and persisted for several weeks after the kits were removed from the supplemented diets (Bleavins et al., 1983). Zinc levels in the urine usually range from 300 to 600 µg per day. Halsey, who released a new album 'Manic' earlier this year, says the Recording Academy accepts bribes when deciding its slate of nominees. No significant differences from control females were seen in the haematological parameters measured. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 12(2): 193–201. Save on our favorite brands by using our digital grocery coupons. A single exposure at 8 mg/m3 was also without effect (Lam et al., 1982). Pedobiologia, 40: 80–96. Hastings MI, US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, pp 1–36 (Health hazard evaluation report 89-267-2139). J Radioanal Nucl Chem, 183(2): 389–393. Brümmer GW (1986) Heavy metal species, mobility and availability in soils. Essential and toxic trace metals in human health and disease. The concentration at which zinc is homoeostatically regulated is species-specific (Larson & Hyland, 1987) and the external zinc concentration at which regulation breaks down depends on both intrinsic (e.g., species) and extrinsic (e.g., temperature) factors (Nugegoda & Rainbow, 1987). Negligible quantities of zinc are inhaled in ambient air (approximately 0.7 µg/day) (Cleven et al., 1993). In a study by Matseshe et al. Sci Total Environ, Suppl. Lennard ES (1980) Implications in the burn neutrophil of serum and cellular zinc levels. Farris JL, Belanger SE, Cherry DS, & Cairns J (1989) Cellulolytic activity as a novel approach to assess long-term zinc stress to Corbicula. Ruz M, Castillo-Duran C, Lara X, Codocco J, Rebolledo A, & Atalah E (1997) A 14-mo zinc-supplementation trial in apparently healthy Chilean preschool children. 1 slice,1 chop,1/2 cup cubed or shredded or 2 oz. In: Prasad AS ed. Environ Sci Technol, 22: 811–818. 5–7 years old, studied for 12 months randomized pair-matched trial; zinc at 10 mg/day (30) or with placebo (30); fruit juice drink given by parents at home, height effect only in subjects with low hair zinc (<1.68 µmol/g); increase in appetite perceived by parents, 133 children, 6–13 years old, with suboptimal zinc and vitamin A nutriture studied for 6 months randomized pair-matched trial; zinc at 25 mg/day (33), vitamin A (33), vitamin A + zinc (32) or with placebo (35); capsules taken on school days, no weight or height effects; increase in serum alkaline phosphatase activity; improved dark adaptation; improved conjunctival integrity, 109 apparently healthy children, 0.5–3 years old, studied for 15 months randomized group-matched trial; 70 mg of zinc (55) or placebo (54); drink given twice a week at clinic, no weight or height effects; increase in arm circumference; less malaria; improved intestinal permeability, 162 schoolchildren, 6–8 years old, studied for 25 weeks randomized pair-matched trial; micronutrients (82), micro-nutrients + zinc at 10 mg/day (80); chewable tablet given at school on weekdays, no weight or height effects; increase in triceps skinfold; smaller decrease in mid-arm circumference; no increase in serum alkaline phosphatase, 46 short-stature schoolchildren, 6–12 years old, consuming diets providing 50–60% of normal daily zinc intake, studied for 12 months randomized study; zinc at 10 mg/day or placebo, no weight effect; height effect in males only; no difference in plasma zinc, 98 healthy pre-school children studied for 14 months zinc at 10 mg/day or placebo, height effect in males; trend towards improved immune function and reduced giardiasis, Table 31. Iron absorption and distribution is altered by zinc deficiency. Sayer MDJ, Reader JP, & Morris R (1989) The effect of calcium concentration on the toxicity of copper, lead and zinc to yolk-sac fry of brown trout, Salmo trutta L., in soft, acid water. Land application of sludge – food chain implications. Evans RM (1988) The steroid and thyroid hormone receptor superfamily. A positive relationship between the zinc concentrations in the terrestrial amphipod (Arcitalitrus dorrieni) and zinc concentration in its food was reported (Weeks, 1992). Accumulation of zinc to meet physiological requirements can be mistaken for trophic transfer. Biochem. Van Gestel CAM, Dirven-van Breeman EM, & Baerselman R (1993) Accumulation and elimination of cadmium, chromium and zinc and effects on growth and reproduction in Eisenia andrei (Oligochaeta, Annelida).

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