spanish colonial era

Other notable historical figures in the production are Malinche, Cortés cultural translator, and other conquerors Pedro de Alvarado, Cristóbal de Olid, Bernal Díaz del Castillo. Western Venezuela’s history took an atypical direction in 1528, when Spain’s first Hapsburg monarch, Charles I granted rights to colonize to the German banking family of the Welsers. Spaniards found the bonanza they long sought: great material wealth. [93], In 1524 the Council of the Indies was established, following the system of system of Councils that advised the monarch and made decisions on his behalf about specific matters of government. As many as 60 salaried soldiers were garrisoned in presidios. The British Empire offered support, wanting to end the Spanish monopoly on trade with its colonies in the Americas. [156], Invasion of the American continents and incorporation into the Spanish Empire, "Conquista" redirects here. He was driven from his home by the thousands, starved, beaten, raped, and murdered with impunity. Ore was crushed with the aid of mules and then mercury could be applied to draw out the pure silver. For the colony's continued existence, a reliable source of labor was needed. "La catastrophe démographique" (The Demographic Catastrophe) in. Archbishop Juan Rodríguez de Fonseca, Isabella's confessor, was tasked with reining in Columbus's independence. During the Spanish Colonial Period of the Philippines most of the archipelago underwent a … [124][125] When the formal institution of the Inquisition was established in 1571, indigenous peoples were excluded from its jurisdiction on the grounds that they were neophytes, new converts, and not capable of understanding religious doctrine. [149] The similarly epic and dark journey of Lope de Aguirre was made into a film by Werner Herzog, Aguirre, the Wrath of God (1972), starring Klaus Kinsky. The Philippines, ruled from Mexico City was a Spanish territory for 333 years (1565-1898).. The Jesuits were effective missionaries in frontier areas until their expulsion from Spain and its empire in 1767. 1731. It consisted of a number of opposing views about the way natives were to be integrated into colonial life, their conversion to Christianity and their rights and obligations. Other imports were figs, apricots, cherries, pears, and peaches among others. The Libertadores (Spanish and Portuguese for "Liberators") were the principal leaders of the Spanish American wars of independence. Far more famous now is Lope de Aguirre, who led a mutiny against Ursúa, who was murdered. [63], After the end of the period of conquests, it was necessary to manage extensive and different territories with a strong bureaucracy. Up Next. The Philippine Government During The Spanish Colonial Period. African slaves were imported to Spanish territories, although in lesser numbers than in English and Portuguese territories. Hispanic American Historical Review 53.4 (1973): 581-599. For other uses, see, Assertion of royal control in the early Caribbean, Civil administrative districts, provinces, Frontier institutions – presidio and mission, Early economy of indigenous tribute and labor. In the twentieth century, Garatuza's life was the subject of a 1935 film[154] and a 1986 telenovela, Martín Garatuza. The royal official in charge of a district was the Corregidor, who was appointed by the viceroy, usually for a five-year term. During a financial crisis in the late seventeenth century, the crown began selling Audiencia appointments, and American-born Spaniards held 45% of Audiencia appointments. Vol. Spain built Mission Systems to protect its claim to North American Colonies. The first two were in the Alto Perú, present-day Bolivia, at Charcas (present day Sucre, May 25), and La Paz (July 16); and the third in present-day Ecuador at Quito (August 10). In the Indies, corregimiento initially functioned to bring control over Spanish settlers who exploited the indigenous populations held in encomienda, in order to protect the shrinking indigenous populations and prevent the formation of an aristocracy of conquerors and powerful settlers. The diocesan clergy) (also called the secular clergy were under the direct authority of bishops, who were appointed by the crown, through the power granted by the pope in the Patronato Real. To convert American Indians to Catholicism. His fall from power is viewed as an example of the weakening of the crown in the mid-seventeenth century since it failed to protect their duly appointed bishop. Spalding, Karen. [34] It was governed by the president of the Audiencia of Bogotá, and comprised an area corresponding mainly to modern-day Colombia and parts of Venezuela. [146] The story of Doña Marina, also known as Malinche, was the subject of a Mexican TV miniseries in 2018. He strongly influenced the formulation of colonial policy under the Catholic Monarchs, and was instrumental in establishing the Casa de Contratación (House of Trade) (1503), which enabled crown control over trade and immigration. Spanish universities expanded to train lawyer-bureaucrats (letrados) for administrative positions in Spain and its overseas empire. Neither was effective in its purpose. The Spanish time was basically when the natives started to learn how to live “civilized” and when they were given a soul that made them “real people” (The official … The first expansion of territory was the conquest of the Muslim Kingdom of Granada on January 1, 1492, the culmination of the Christian Reconquest of the Iberian peninsula, held by the Muslims since 711. Francisco de Ibarra led an expedition from Zacatecas in northern New Spain, and founded Durango. Matthäus Merian, Dreyzehender Theil Americae, 1628. In Peru, silver was found in a single silver mountain, the Cerro Rico de Potosí, still producing silver in the 21st century. We didn’t have anything ruling over us and dictating us what is needed to be done. On its southern edge, Tejas was bordered by the province of Coahuila. Columbus had promised that the region he now controlled held a huge treasure in the form of gold and spices. A central plaza had the most important buildings on the four sides, especially buildings for royal officials and the main church. The red saltire was his family symbol, since Andrew was the patron saint of Burgundy. [132][133][134] In Mexico, the labor force had to be lured from elsewhere in the colony, and was not based on traditional systems of rotary labor. 84-85. The profits from Spanish expedition flowed to Castile. Horses that escaped Spanish control were captured by indigenous; many indigenous also raided for horses. Jun 8, 2017 What is it about the allure of a historic house? Since their appointments were for life or the pleasure of the monarch, they had a continuity of power and authority that viceroys and captains-general lacked because of their shorter-term appointments. Philippine Literature in the Spanish Colonial Period with Reflection February 23, 2016 March 6, 2016 The existing literature of the Philippine ethnic groups at the time of conquest and conversion into Christianity was mainly oral, consisting of epics, legends, songs, riddles, and proverbs. In 1574, Philip II promulgated the Order of Patronage (Ordenaza del Patronato) ordering the religious orders to turn over their parishes to the secular clergy, a policy that secular clerics had long sought for the central areas of empire, with their large indigenous populations. The Spanish naval ships began to fly this flag in the early 1500s in honor of their king. [42] The crown later sent him to Asunción, Paraguay to be adelantado there. They preferred wheat cultivation to indigenous sources of carbohydrates: casava, maize (corn), and potatoes, initially importing seeds from Europe and planting in areas where plow agriculture could be utilized, such as the Mexican Bajío. Though he was not the first explorer to set foot there, nor did he ever come to understand the dimensions of his discovery, it was Christopher Columbus who first published an account of his findings. "Questionnaires from the Trial of the Second Marqués del Valle for Conspiracy, 1566" in, Fernández de Recas, Guillermo S. Cacicazgos y nobiliario indígena de la Nueva España. The reorganization of administration has been called "a revolution in government. Alcaldías mayores were larger districts with a royal appointee, the Alcalde mayor. [116], The other frontier institution was the religious mission to convert the indigenous populations. The pope was the head of the Catholic Church, but the granting of the Patronato Real to the Spanish monarchy gave the king the power of appointment (patronage) of ecclesiastics. Spain's rapid growth from a group of small weak kingdoms fighting Islamic incursion and each other to become, though challenged, the near master of the world, is a phenomenal story. Queen Isabel was the first monarch that laid the first stone for the protection of the indigenous peoples in her testament in which the Catholic monarch prohibited the enslavement of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. Disease and overwork, disruption of family life and the agricultural cycle (which caused severe food shortages to Spaniards dependent on them) rapidly decimated the indigenous population. Viceroys were of high social standing, almost without exception born in Spain, and served fixed terms. Spanish Texas (Tejas) was a colonial province within the northeastern mainland region of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. 5, p. 453. Expeditions continued to explore territories in hopes of finding another Aztec or Inca empire, with no further success. Latin America: the Colonial Era. We have included primary sources, databases, and print material that may be of … When European traders, in search for a new route to the Spice Islands, stumbled into the … Terms in this set (24) Natural Texas and It's People Era. They replicated the existing indigenous network of settlements, but added a port city. 25. The last aspect of Spanish colonial society that I wanna point out is the racial caste system that developed in the New World. Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere. Viceroys were responsible for good governance of their territories, economic development, and humane treatment of the indigenous populations.[98]. The diocese was in turn divided into smaller units, the parish, staffed by a parish priest. He became deeply indebted to the German Welser and Fugger banking families. In the following years the conquistadors and indigenous allies extended control over Greater Andes Region. Cattle multiplied quickly in areas where little else could turn a profit for Spaniards, including northern Mexico and the Argentine pampas. [53] The crown sought to establish and maintain control over its overseas possessions through a complex, hierarchical bureaucracy, which in many ways was decentralized. Spaniards spent over 25 years in the Caribbean where their initial high hopes of dazzling wealth gave way to continuing exploitation of disappearing indigenous populations, exhaustion of local gold mines, initiation of cane sugar cultivation as an export product, and importation of African slaves as a labor force. Princeton University Press, 1984. Lawyers for these cases were funded by a half-real tax, an early example of legal aid for the poor. On October 12, 1492, Genoese mariner Christopher Columbus made landfall in the Western Hemisphere.[12]. The Spanish brought new crops for cultivation. We have included primary sources, databases, and print material that may be of … After the 1550s, the crown increasingly favored the diocesan clergy over the religious orders. 87-88. Ecuador Table of Contents. Benedict. Dressing, J. David. Warren, J. [69], The treasury officials were appointed by the king, and were largely independent of the authority of the viceroy, audiencia president or governor. Effective Spanish settlement began in 1493, when Columbus brought livestock, seeds, agricultural equipment. Aguirre subsequently wrote a letter to Philip II bitterly complaining about the treatment of conquerors like himself in the wake of the assertion of crown control over Peru. Among the foodstuffs that became staples in European cuisine and could be grown there were tomatoes, squashes, bell peppers, and to a lesser extent in Europe chili peppers; also nuts of various kinds: Walnuts, cashews, pecans, and peanuts. However, since they did not have a son to succeed them, the Spanish Crown went to the son of their oldest daughter, Juana, who was married to Philip, Duke of Burgundy. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The ideas from the French and the American Revolution influenced the efforts. The conquest of central Mexico is one of the best-documented events in world history, with accounts by the expedition leader Hernán Cortés, many other Spanish conquistadors, including Bernal Díaz del Castillo, indigenous allies from the city-states altepetl of Tlaxcala, Texcoco, and Huexotzinco, but also importantly, the defeated of Tenochtitlan, the Aztec capital. $115.00. The empire was a fragile confederation of city-states. [71] Upon their failure to effectively protect the indigenous and following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire and the Spanish conquest of Peru, more stringent laws to control conquerors' and settlers' exercise of power, especially their maltreatment of the indigenous populations, were promulgated, known as the New Laws (1542). Colonial Culture. [147] A major production in Mexico was the 1998 film, The Other Conquest, which focuses on a Nahua in the post-conquest era and the evangelization of central Mexico. Stanford University Press, 2004. Charles also adopted this flag when he became Charles I of Spain (1516-1556). $135.00. They pursued a policy of joint rule of their kingdoms and created the initial stage of a single Spanish monarchy, completed under the eighteenth-century Bourbon monarchs. The Colonial Era The following 300 years mark the Colonial era, when the territories of New Spain were expanded under the control of local viceroys, named by the Spanish crown. Spain's colonies in the New World were, legally, the personal patrimony of the king, and he held absolute control over all matters in Ecuador. 3. MUSIC OF THE PHILIPPINES DURING PRE-SPANISH ERA 2. Corregimiento expanded "royal authority from the urban centers into the countryside and over the indigenous population. In those days, the flag of a country was actually the flag of the ruling house. The salary of officials during the Habsburg era were paltry, but the corregidor or alcalde mayor in densely populated areas of indigenous settlement with a valuable product could use his office for personal enrichment. SPANISH COLONIAL ERA. In the colonial era, Spain initiated the Encomienda System, under which thousands of people and families were entrusted to colonial officials. The capital city of a viceroyalty became of the seat of the archbishop. 1875. Las Casas was officially appointed Protector of the Indians and spent his life arguing forcefully on their behalf. During the pre-colonial period, it was the dominant pattern of organization of the indigenous communities. Spanish colonization. The Kingdom of Portugal authorized a series of voyages down the coast of Africa and when they rounded the southern tip, were able to sail to India and further east. Chipman, Donald E. and Joseph, Harriett Denise. We didn’t have anything ruling over us and dictating us what is needed to be done. [114], As the empire expanded into areas of less dense indigenous populations, the crown created a chain of presidios, military forts or garrisons, that provided Spanish settlers protection from Indian attacks. [35], Venezuela was first visited by Europeans during the 1490s, when Columbus was in control of the region, and the region as a source for indigenous slaves for Spaniards in Cuba and Hispaniola, since the Spanish destruction of the local indigenous population. Burkholder, Mark A. and Lyman L. Johnson. [46] The capitals of Mexico and Peru, Mexico City and Lima came to have large concentrations of Spanish settlers and became the hubs of royal and ecclesiastical administration, large commercial enterprises and skilled artisans, and centers of culture. While it sought to duplicate the Spanish lifeways of the Old World, it created its own unique traditions, identities, and cuisines. [148], The epic journey of Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca has been portrayed in a 1991 feature-length Mexican film, Cabeza de Vaca. [65] To these political functions of the governor, it could be joined the military ones, according to military requirements, with the rank of Captain general. [67], Provinces in the Spanish Empire had a royal treasury controlled by a set of oficiales reales (royal officials). In the early 19th century, the Spanish American wars of independence resulted in the secession and subsequent division of most Spanish territories in the Americas, except for Cuba and Puerto Rico, which were finally lost to The United States in 1898, following the Spanish–American War. New York: Cambridge University Press 1994. sfn error: no target: CITEREFBrading1971 (, Kuethe, Allan J. [123] The crown expelled the Jesuits from Spain and The Indies in 1767 during the Bourbon Reforms. Also cochineal is technically an animal product, the insects were placed on cacti and harvested by the hands of indigenous laborers. Caste and Class Structure in Colonial Spanish AmericaDuring most of the colonial era, Spanish American society had a pyramidal structure with a small number of Spaniards at the top, a group of mixedrace people beneath them, and at the bottom a large indigenous population and small number of slaves, usually of African origin. Survivors continued to travel among indigenous groups in the North American south and southwest until 1536. [109] In order to control the municipal life, the Crown ordered the appointment of corregidores and alcaldes mayores to exert greater political control and judicial functions in minor districts. Spanish archives are full of exasperated colonial officials complaining about how such settlements were ‘all but abandoned’ in many cases after only a few weeks. There are many such works for Mexico, often drawing on native-language documentation in Nahuatl,[86][87] Mixtec,[88] and Yucatec Maya. During the Spanish colonization in the Philippines , the government was composed of two branches, the executive and the judicial. It became the second-most important export product from Spanish America after silver. There were also sub-treasuries at important ports and mining districts. Spaniards persuaded the leaders of subordinate city-states and one city-state never conquered by the Aztecs, Tlaxcala, to join them in huge numbers, with thousands, perhaps tens of thousands of indigenous warriors. With a hostile indigenous population, no obvious mineral or other exploitable resources, and little strategic value, Chile was a fringe area of colonial Spanish America, hemmed in geographically by the Andes to the east, Pacific Ocean to the west, and indigenous to the south. 32084. The crown established control over trade and emigration to the Indies with the 1503 establishment the Casa de Contratación (House of Trade) in Seville. Melville, Elinor G.K. A Plague of Sheep: Environmental Consequences of the Conquest of Mexico. Hispanic American Historical Review, vol. There were a variable number of councilors (regidores), depending on the size of the town, also two municipal judges (alcaldes menores), who were judges of first instance, and also other officials as police chief, inspector of supplies, court clerk, and a public herald. In 1542 Las Casas wrote a damning account of this genocide, A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies. But the importation of horses transformed warfare for both the Spaniards and the indigenous. Spanish settlement in Mexico “largely replicated the organization of the area in preconquest times” while in Peru, the center of the Incas was too far south, too remote, and at too high an altitude for the Spanish capital. The Spanish recognized indigenous elites as nobles and gave them continuing standing in their communities. The Libertadores (Spanish and Portuguese for "Liberators") were the principal leaders of the Spanish American wars of independence. The story is that the branches were roughly hacked off two small trees, and the trees were tied together to make the cross. Pope Alexander VI in a 4 May 1493 papal decree, Inter caetera, divided rights to lands in the Western Hemisphere between Spain and Portugal on the proviso that they spread Christianity. parliament), administrative or ecclesiastical institution, or seigneurial group. The leader of the expedition pledged the larger share of capital to the enterprise, which in many ways functioned as a commercial firm. Columbus made four voyages to the West Indies as the monarchs granted Columbus vast powers of governance over this unknown part of the world. Among the most notable expeditions are Hernando de Soto into southeast North America, leaving from Cuba (1539-42); Francisco Vázquez de Coronado to northern Mexico (1540-42), and Gonzalo Pizarro to Amazonia, leaving from Quito, Ecuador (1541-42). Khan Academy is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. Spanish Colonial Era. Physical torture was meted out to the unmanageable prisoners. ... Spanish conquistadors, settlers, priests, or colonial officials were given a repartimiento, or grant of land. •A mission was a settlement set up in Indian Territory.Friars, or members of clergy who belong to religious groups, invited Indians to live at the missions. Indigenous elites could use the noble titles don and doña, were exempt from the head-tax, and could entail their landholdings into cacicazgos. "Social climbers: Changing patterns of mobility among the Indians of colonial Peru." European background: Spain and Portugal. The Mixtecs of colonial Oaxaca: Ñudzahui history, sixteenth through eighteenth centuries. House Tour: A Spanish Colonial Channels A Bygone Era. "Papal Responsibility for the Infidel: Another Look at Alexander VI's" Inter Caetera"." [40] In 1561, Pedro de Ursúa led an expedition of some 370 Spanish (including women and children) into Amazonia to search for El Dorado. Instituto Bibliográfico Mexicano 1961, Gibson, Charles. Terraciano, Kevin. 1, pp. One in 1949 stars Frederic March as Columbus. Inquisitional powers were initially vested in bishops, who could root out idolatry and heresy. The treasury officials were appointed by the king, and were largely independent of the authority of the governor. Colonial administration at all levels was carried out in the name of the monarch. [citation needed], Of the history of the indigenous population of California, Sherburne F. Cook (1896–1974) was the most painstakingly careful researcher. During the Pre Colonial period, people didn’t have any religion or belief because before we were free. "California Indian Characteristics". It was translated quickly to English and became the basis for the anti-Spanish writings, collectively known as the Black Legend. Important ones include Santiago de Guatemala (1524); Puebla (1531); Querétaro (ca. Miller, Gary. Puerto Rico continues to be a possession of the United States, now officially continues as a self-governing unincorporated territory. [39], The spectacular conquests of central Mexico (1519-21) and Peru (1532) sparked Spaniards' hopes of finding yet another high civilization. The Colonial Era The following 300 years mark the Colonial era, when the territories of New Spain were expanded under the control of local viceroys, named by the Spanish crown. Hernán Cortés requested Franciscan and Dominican friars be sent to New Spain immediately after the conquest of Tenochtitlan to begin evangelization. The islands were part of the larger Spanish East Indies. Spanish Colonial Era The story of Texas and the American West goes back thousands of years with artifacts displayed from Native American, French, Spanish and Mexican influences. [112] However, both charges were also put up for sale freely since the late 16th century. Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada was the leading conquistador with his brother Hernán second in command. [77] These elites played an intermediary role between the Spanish rulers and indigenous commoners. Tobacco was introduced in the Philippines in the late 16th century during the era of Spanish colonization when the Augustinians brought cigar tobacco seeds to the colony for cultivation. Their central official and ceremonial area was built on top of Aztec palaces and temples. “Venezuela: The Colonial Era” in ‘’Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. "Chile: Colonial Foundations" in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, vol. • Spanish colonization in the Philippines started in 1565 during the time of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, the first Spanish governor- general in the Philippines. The New Laws of 1542 were the result, limiting the power of encomenderos, the private holders of grants to indigenous labor previously held in perpetuity. According to Cook, the indigenous Californian population at first contact, in 1769, was about 310,000 and had dropped to 25,000 by 1910. [48][49] Arguably the most significant introduction was diseases brought to the Americas, which devastated indigenous populations in a series of epidemics. [107], After the reign of Philip II, the municipal offices, including the councilors, were auctioned to alleviate the need for money of the Crown, even the offices could also be sold, which became hereditary,[108] so that the government of the cities went on to hands of urban oligarchies. "Latinized" America was a diverse, capable, and often complex society. "Blasco Núñez Vela" in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, vol. We had everything in our hands and we were free to do anything we wanted. Although their primary focus was on religious conversion, missionaries served as "diplomatic agents, peace emissaries to hostile tribes ... and they were also expected to hold the line against nomadic nonmissionary Indians as well as other European powers. Treasury officials were supposed to be paid out of the income from the province, and were normally prohibited from engaging in income-producing activities.[70]. Lockhart and Schwartz, Early Latin America, pp. The crown established the audiencia in 1549. These styles are associated with the houses, churches and government buildings of the period from about 1600 through the 19th century. Bolivia's Colonial Era 1500-1800 A.D. Bolivia's history changed dramatically when in 1532 the Spanish defeated the great Incas, and other ethnic groups that had historically inhabited the area. In an effort to solidify their control over North American resources and territory, European colonial powers began to construct fortifications to protect their … A key to this was the cooperation between most indigenous elites with the new ruling structure. Perhaps the greatest empire that the world has ever known, the Spanish Empire controlled, influenced, or claimed nearly half of the world in the 16th-18th centuries. After the collapse of the Taino population of Hispaniola, Spaniards took to slave raiding and settlement on nearby islands, including Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Jamaica, replicating the demographic catastrophe there as well. The expansion of Spain’s territory took place under the Catholic Monarchs Isabella of Castile, Queen of Castile and her husband King Ferdinand, King of Aragon, whose marriage marked the beginning of Spanish power beyond the Iberian peninsula. Spain sought similar wealth, and authorized Columbus’s voyage sailing west. Back to Article List. [131] In the Andes, Viceroy Francisco de Toledo revived the indigenous rotary labor system of the mita to supply labor for silver mining. For Spaniards, the fierce Chichimecas barred them for exploiting mining resources in northern Mexico. We had everything in our hands and we were free to do anything we wanted. [110] Their functions were governing the respective municipalities, administering of justice and being appellate judges in the alcaldes menores' judgments,[111] but only the corregidor could preside over the cabildo. Virtually all expeditions after the Columbus voyages, which were funded by the crown of Castile, were done at the expense of the leader of the expedition and its participants. $100.00. "[54] Reforms sought to centralize government control through reorganization of administration, reinvigorate the economies of Spain and the Spanish empire through changes in mercantile and fiscal policies, defend Spanish colonies and territorial claims through the establishment of a standing military, undermine the power of the Catholic church, and rein in the power of the American-born elites.[55]. Residences of the officials and elites were closest to the main square. Era in Texas History characterized by the building of missions to confirm Spanish land claims. Another major export product was cochineal, a color-fast red dye made from dried bugs living on cacti. Spanish colonization of the Philippines started in 1565 during the time of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, the first Spanish governor-general in the Philippines. [22][23] Even by the mid-1510s, the western Caribbean was largely unexplored by Spaniards. [96], In 1721, at the beginning of the Bourbon monarchy, the crown transferred the main responsibility for governing the overseas empire from the Council of the Indies to the Ministry of the Navy and the Indies, which were subsequently divided into two separate ministries in 1754. “The Spanish Borderlands, Historiography Redux.”, Spanish Exploration and Conquest of North America, This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 16:36. The Spanish Colonial Era in Texas Before Texas was one of the most populous and culturally vibrant states in the United States, Texas was part of New Spain, a colony in the Spanish Empire. "Peace by purchase" ended the conflict. Viceroys served as the vice-patron of the Catholic Church, including the Inquisition, established in the seats of the viceroyalties (Mexico City and Lima). The missions were managed by friars from the order of St. Francis – the Franciscans — and were placed in lands that had been home to Native Americans for … Thus, it is sometimes referred to as the Spanish Colonial Flag. The Spanish colonial era. The crown created civil and religious structures to administer this vast territory. [118], During the early colonial period, the crown authorized friars of Catholic religious orders (Franciscans, Dominicans, and Augustinians) to function as priests during the conversion of indigenous populations. "Cook, Sherburne F. 1976b. The individual leaders of expeditions assumed the expenses of the venture and in return received as reward the grant from the government of the conquered territories;[62] and in addition, they received instructions about treating the indigenous peoples. Where the Spaniards had exclusive access to horses in warfare, they had an advantage over indigenous warriors on foot. Lockhart and Schwartz, Early Latin America, pp. A caste system, like that used in the Spanish America, existed in the Philippines, with some explicit differences. Ships and cargoes were registered, and emigrants vetted to prevent migration of anyone not of old Christian heritage, (i.e., with no Jewish or Muslim ancestry), and facilitated the migration of families and women. Start studying Spanish Colonial Era. Vol. - It is a ritual based on a legend about a princess who dropped her ring into the middle of the sea and offered her hand in marriage in anyone who can retrieve it. Spanish Colonial History; Spanish Colonial History. For all practical purposes, this was slavery. [29][30][31][32] But not until the Spanish conquest of Peru was the conquest of the Aztecs matched in scope by the victory over the Inca empire in 1532. The Franciscans arrived first in 1525 in a group of twelve, the Twelve Apostles of Mexico. One was by Francisco Hernández de Córdoba in 1517, another by Juan de Grijalva in 1518, which brought promising news of possibilities there. The Spanish took advantage of a recent civil war between the factions of the two brothers Emperor Atahualpa and Huáscar, and the enmity of indigenous nations the Incas had subjugated, such as the Huancas, Chachapoyas, and Cañaris. Natural Texas and It's People Era. What can be called the visions of the vanquished, indigenous accounts written in the sixteenth century, are a rare case of history being written by those other than the victors. "[101], Their main function was judicial, as a court of justice of second instance —court of appeal— in penal and civil matters, but also the Audiencias were courts the first instance in the city where it had its headquarters, and also in the cases involving the Royal Treasury. The officials of the royal treasury at each level of government typically included two to four positions: a tesorero (treasurer), the senior official who guarded money on hand and made payments; a contador (accountant or comptroller), who recorded income and payments, maintained records, and interpreted royal instructions; a factor, who guarded weapons and supplies belonging to the king, and disposed of tribute collected in the province; and a veedor (overseer), who was responsible for contacts with native inhabitants of the province, and collected the king's share of any war booty. $25.00 shipping. The most prominent example is in Puebla, Mexico, when Bishop Juan de Palafox y Mendoza was driven from his bishopric by the Jesuits. 1 (2012): 26-40. Year that East Texas missions were relocated to San Antonio. 5, p. 253. Cane sugar imported from the Old World was the high value, low bulk export product that became the bulwark of tropical economies of the Caribbean islands and coastal Tierra Firme (the Spanish Main), as well as Portuguese Brazil. Since in central and southern Mexico (Mesoamerica) and the highland Andes indigenous peoples had existing traditions of payment of tribute and required labor service, the Spanish could tap into these existing to extract wealth. To feed urban populations and mining workforces, small-scale farms (ranchos), (estancias), and large-scale enterprises (haciendas) emerged to fill the demand, especially for foodstuffs that Spaniards wanted to eat, most especially wheat. Spanish Colonial homes were first built in the parts of America settled by Spaniards—namely Florida, California, and throughout the Southwest—from the 1600s to the mid-1800s. Often they erected a church on the site of an indigenous temple. Until his dying day, Columbus was convinced that he had reached Asia, the Indies. As with many other royal posts, these positions were sold, starting in 1677. There was no legislative branch on that time since the laws of the islands were coming from Spain . The vast majority of the decline happened after the Spanish period, during the Mexican and US periods of Californian history (1821–1910), with the most dramatic collapse (200,000 to 25,000) occurring in the US period (1846–1910).[128][129][130]. In Mexico, the crown established the General Indian Court (Juzgado General de Indios), which heard disputes affecting individual indigenous as well as indigenous communities. The laws were the first codified set of laws governing the behavior of Spanish settlers in the Americas, particularly with regards to treatment of native Indians in the institution of the encomienda. The Spaniards systematically attempted to transform structures of indigenous governance to those more closely resembling those of Spaniards, so the indigenous city-state became a Spanish town and the indigenous noblemen who ruled became officeholders of the town council (cabildo). The Taino population on Hispaniola went from hundreds of thousands or millions –- the estimates by scholars vary widely -- but in the mid-1490s, they were practically wiped out. Attitude of the Spanish clergy in the early phase – Spanish friars was forced to learn the native language of the peoples they sought to convert. [103] The Bourbon-era intendants were appointed and relatively well paid. Old Spanish documents indicate that the renowned explorers Ferdinand Magellan and Miguel López de Legazpi landed in Camiguin in 1521 and 1565, respectively. Ida Altman, S.L. Religious orders had their own internal regulations and leadership. In southern Central and South America, settlements were founded in Panama (1519); León, Nicaragua (1524); Cartagena (1532); Piura (1532); Quito (1534); Trujillo (1535); Cali (1537) Bogotá (1538); Quito (1534); Cuzco 1534); Lima (1535); Tunja, (1539); Huamanga 1539; Arequipa (1540); Santiago de Chile (1544) and Concepción, Chile (1550). [41] An earlier expedition that left in 1527 was led by Pánfilo Naváez, who was killed early on. [76], The conquest of the Aztec and Inca empires ended their sovereignty over their respective territorial expanses, replaced by the Spanish Empire. From the Spanish viewpoint, their source of labor and viability of their own settlements was at risk. Spanish Colonial History; Spanish Colonial History. [58] In addition, the Casa de Contratación took charge of the fiscal organization, and of the organization and judicial control of the trade with the Indies. The conquistadors originally organized it as a captaincy general within the Viceroyalty of Peru. 4, p. 204. Mounted indigenous warriors were significant foes for Spaniards. Cathy Kincaid mixes disparate patterns, fine antiques, and a sublime palette in a historic Dallas home. Queen Isabel put an end to formal slavery, declaring the indigenous to be vassals of the crown, but Spaniards' exploitation continued. There is debate about the impact of ranching on the environment in the colonial era, with sheep herding being called out for its negative impact, while other contest that. By maintaining hierarchical divisions within communities, indigenous noblemen were the direct interface between the indigenous and Spanish spheres and kept their positions so long as they continued to be loyal to the Spanish crown. These were often led by secondary leaders, such as Pedro de Alvarado. The composition of the expedition was the standard pattern, with a senior leader, and participating men investing in the enterprise with the full expectation of rewards if they did not lose their lives. 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Corregidores collected the tribute from indigenous communities and regulated forced indigenous labor. As the indigenous populations declined, the need for corregimiento decreased and then suppressed, with the alcaldía mayor remaining an institution until it was replaced in the eighteenth-century Bourbon Reforms by royal officials, Intendants. [72] Then the first such in 1542; the legal thought behind them was the basis of modern International law. History of the Philippines (1565–1898) The Spanish colonial period in the Philippines was the period during which the Philippines were part of the Spanish Empire as the Captaincy General of the Philippines from 1565 to 1898. A second (and permanent) settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who arrived by sailing down the Paraná River from Asunción, now the capital of Paraguay. These began a movement for colonial independence that spread to Spain's other colonies in the Americas. [85] Indigenous noblemen were particularly important in the early period of colonization, since the economy of the encomienda was initially built on the extraction of tribute and labor from the commoners in their communities. On March 31, 1492, the Catholic Monarch ordered the expulsion of the Jews in Spain who refused to convert to Christianity. In areas of sparse population, ranching of cattle (ganado mayor) and smaller livestock (ganado menor) such as sheep and goats ranged widely and were largely feral. [43] Juan de Oñate expanded Spanish sovereignty over what is now New Mexico. $25.00 shipping. [145], For the conquest of Mexico, a 2019 an eight-episode Mexican TV miniseries Hernán depicts the conquest of Mexico. [94] Based in Castile, with the assignment of the governance of the Indies, it was thus responsible for drafting legislation, proposing the appointments to the King for civil government as well as ecclesiastical appointments, and pronouncing judicial sentences; as maximum authority in the overseas territories, the Council of the Indies took over both the institutions in the Indies as the defense of the interests of the Crown, the Catholic Church, and of indigenous peoples. “House of Welser” in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, vol. Hispanic Research Journal 13, no. The Spanish period. The cabildo was composed of the prominent residents (vecinos) of the municipality, so that governance was restricted to a male elite, with majority of the population exercising power. spain 2 real mexico ferdinand vii spanish colonial era lot 5 silver coins. "Viceroyalty, Viceroy" in, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFEncyclopedia_of_Latin_and_mexicpo_is_the_best_History_and_Culture1996 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFLockhartSchwartz1983 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFBennassar2001 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFGibson1966 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFAltmanClineJavier_Pescador2003 (, Ramírez, Susan E. "Missions: Spanish America" in, sfn error: no target: CITEREFBrading1993 (, Don, Patricia Lopes. In an effort to solidify their control over North American resources and territory, European colonial powers began to construct fortifications to protect their settlements from foreign encroachment. The empire in the Indies was a newly established dependency of the kingdom of Castile alone, so crown power was not impeded by any existing cortes (i.e. Icons brought by the friars were used as models for sculpture. spain 1/2 real + 1 real + 2 real mexico spanish colonial era lot 7 silver coins. During most of the Spanish colonial period, the … Pre Colonial and Spanish era. In the extension of Spanish sovereignty to its overseas territories, authority for expeditions (entradas) of discovery, conquest, and settlement resided in the monarchy. "The Bourbon Reforms" in, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFEncyclopedia_of_Latin_American_History_and_Culture1996 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFBedini1992 (, Cook, Noble David. Best was gold, but silver was found in abundance. The establishment of large, permanent Spanish settlements attracted a whole range of new residents, who set up shop as carpenters, bakers, tailors and other artisan activities. For the Spanish, these populations were there for their exploitation, to supply their own settlements with foodstuffs, but more importantly for the Spanish, to extract mineral wealth or produce another valuable commodity for Spanish enrichment. The last Inca stronghold was conquered by the Spanish in 1572. Beginning with the 1492 arrival of Christopher Columbus in the Caribbean and gaining control over more territory for over three centuries, the Spanish Empire would expand across the Caribbean Islands, half of South America, most of Central America and much of North America. The crown set the indigenous communities legally apart from Spaniards (as well as Blacks), who comprised the República de Españoles, with the creation of the República de Indios. The crown relied on ecclesiastics as important councilors and royal officials in the governance of their overseas territories. Native American tribes spoke different languages. INTRODUCTION Long before the arrival of the Spaniards, ancient Filipinos were living in scattered barangays and ruled by different chieftains. MUSIC OF THE PHILIPPINES DURING PRE-SPANISH ERA 2. Brown, Kendall W., "The Spanish Imperial Mercury Trade and the American Mining Expansion Under the Bourbon Monarchy," in, Van Ausdal, Shawn, and Robert W. Wilcox. The Spanish royal government called its overseas possessions "The Indies" until its empire dissolved in the nineteenth century. Showing the indigenous sides are Xicotencatl, a leader of the Spaniards' Tlaxcalan allies, and Aztec emperors Moctezuma II and Cuitlahuac. There is indirect evidence that the first permanent Spanish mainland settlement established in the Americas was Santa María la Antigua del Darién.[21]. Zumárraga was reprimanded for his actions as exceeding his authority. Don Martín was sent into exile, while other conspirators were executed. Pedro de Mendoza and Domingo Martínez de Irala, who led the original expedition, went inland and founded Asunción, Paraguay, which became the Spaniards' base. Though the ethnic art forms such as pottery, weaving and metalwork were retained, the Spanish friars and the Chinese, the colony’s primary trading partner, were slowly introducing newer art forms. The creation of the ecclesiastical hierarchy of the diocesan clergy marked a turning point in the crown's control over the religious sphere. Cline, and Javier Pescador, Cook, David Noble. Some aspects of the pre-colonial period have survived into our time. The Spanish network needed a port city so that inland settlements could be connected by sea to Spain. Muldoon, James. It has been estimated that over 1.86 million Spaniards emigrated to Latin America in the period between 1492 and 1824, with millions more continuing to immigrate following independence. Peru was the last territory in the continent under Spanish rule, which ended on 9 December 1824 at the Battle of Ayacucho (Spanish rule continued until 1898 in Cuba and Puerto Rico). Spanish settlers found relatively dense populations of indigenous peoples, who were agriculturalists living in villages ruled by leaders not part of a larger integrated political system. In Peru, the attempt of the newly appointed viceroy, Blasco Núñez Vela, to implement the New Laws so soon after the conquest sparked a revolt by conquerors against the viceroy and the viceroy was killed in 1546. Crown approval through the Council of the Indies was needed for the establishment of bishoprics, building of churches, appointment of all clerics. Depending on the conditions in a jurisdiction, the position of factor/veedor was often eliminated, as well. The crown of Castile financed more of his trans-Atlantic journeys, a pattern they would not repeat elsewhere. Although there were restrictions of appointees' ties to local elite society and participation in the local economy, they acquired dispensations from the cash-strapped crown. In 1500 the city of Nueva Cádiz was founded on the island of Cubagua, Venezuela, followed by the founding of Santa Cruz by Alonso de Ojeda in present-day Guajira peninsula. [99] Although constituted as the highest judicial authority in their territorial jurisdiction, they also had executive and legislative authority, and served as the executive on an interim basis. Although today Buenos Aires at the mouth of Rio de la Plata is a major metropolis, it held no interest for Spaniards and the 1535-36 settlement failed and was abandoned by 1541. "Latinized" America was a diverse, capable, and often complex society. Although some indigenous art forms survived, new forms and influences from Europe and America gradually became the "Juzgado General de Indios del Perú o Juzgado Particular de Indios de el cercado de Lima.". The New Spanish Colonial Period (1521-1821) The Philippine Islands first came to the attention of Europeans when Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan landed there in 1521, claiming the lands for Spain. The jagged edges of the cross on the Spanish flag represent these trees with the branched lopped off. The Spanish colonization of western America lasted longer than the British claim on the 13 original colonies, but by the mid-1800s, the Spanish Colonial period … During the Napoleonic Peninsular War in Europe between France and Spain, assemblies called juntas were established to rule in the name of Ferdinand VII of Spain. Maya society under colonial rule: The collective enterprise of survival. That expedition was to make world history. Stay tuned for part 2 as that will discuss events from the Dagohoy revolt to the events around the 1870's. Charles sought to be elected Holy Roman Emperor and was willing to pay whatever it took to achieve that. [138] With only a small labor force to draw on, ranching was an ideal economic activity for some regions. Since the flags of Ireland and Scotland (and the flag of Great Britain incorporating the cross of Scotland) are also St. Andrew's crosses, when speaking of the Spanish flag, this design is best called the Burgundian Cross, or the Cross of Burgundy. Each order set up networks of parishes in the various regions (provinces), sited in existing indigenous settlements, where Christian churches were built and where evangelization of the indigenous was based. "[103] As with many colonial institutions, corregimiento had its roots in Castile when the Catholic Monarchs centralize power over municipalities. Spanish Era 1776 - 1821. The loss of these territories ended Spanish rule in the Americas. $100.00. The capital Lima was built near the Pacific coast. Saint Augustine, FL He was also Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire, probably the most powerful man in Europe at that time. The population of the Native American population in Mexico declined by an estimated 90% (reduced to 1–2.5 million people) by the early 17th century. Author(s): Kendall, David Joseph | Advisor(s): Budasz, Rogerio | Abstract: Spanish colonial music, both sacred and secular, enjoyed a long and widespread performance tradition in the Philippines from 1565 to 1898, but this has largely been forgotten or obscured in scholarship of the last hundred years. Prominent Dominican friars in Santo Domingo, especially Antonio de Montesinos and Bartolomé de Las Casas denounced the maltreatment and pressed the crown to act to protect the indigenous populations. June 20, 2011. Ecuador Table of Contents. [121] During the Bourbon Reforms in the mid-eighteenth century, the crown systematically sought to centralize power in its own hands and diminish that of its overseas possessions, appointing peninsular-born Spaniards to Audiencias. The film starred Robert De Niro, Jeremy Irons, and Liam Neeson and It won an Academy Award. [100] They were the "center of the administrative system [and] gave the government of the Indies a strong basis of permanence and continuity. The two main areas of Spanish settlement after 1550 were Mexico and Peru, the sites of the Aztec and Inca indigenous civilizations. Cañeque, Alejandro "The Political and Institutional History of Colonial Spanish America", Weber, David J. The cities were Spanish and the countryside indigenous. The crown asserted is authority and sovereignty of the territory and vassals it claimed, collected taxes, maintained public order, meted out justice, and established policies for governance of large indigenous populations. The loss of indigenous population had a direct impact on Spaniards as well, since increasingly they saw those populations as a source of their own wealth, disappearing before their eyes.[50]. Castaño, Victoria Ríos. During Christopher Columbus's third voyage, when Europeans first set sight on the coast of Venezuela, there was nothing that drew the special attention of the Spanish. as Spaniards expanded their control over territories and their indigenous populations. The first Spanish settlement was established in 1598 in what is now Guinsiliban. Missions were meant to enslave local American Indians. In the following years, Spain extended its rule over the Empire of the Inca civilization. In Peru, Spaniards founded the city of Lima as their capital and its nearby port of Callao, rather than the high-altitude site of Cuzco, the center of Inca rule. One was the presence or absence of dense, hierarchically organized indigenous populations that could be made to work. In Mexico, refining took place in haciendas de minas, where silver ore was refined into pure silver by amalgamation with mercury in what was known as the patio process. A checkerboard pattern radiated outward. Important indigenous crops that transformed Europe were the potato and maize, which produced abundant crops that led to the expansion of populations in Europe. PLAY. ...A third factor, which strongly intensified the effect of the other two, was the social and physical disruption visited upon the Indian. Although the structure of the indigenous cabildo looked similar to that of the Spanish institution, its indigenous functionaries continued to follow indigenous practices. An immediate consequence was the birth of many mixed-blood–mostly illegitimate–offspring. The veedor, or overseer, position quickly disappeared in most jurisdictions, subsumed into the position of factor. In Hispaniola, the indigenous Taíno pre-contact population before the arrival of Columbus of several hundred thousand had declined to sixty thousand by 1509. Though influenced by Spanish traditions from the Iberian peninsula, the culture that emerged in the colonial New World was a mixture of European, African, and local Native customs. The crown had authority to draw the boundaries for dioceses and parishes. They were initially a scarce commodity, but horse breeding became an active industry. In 1810 Mexico declared independence, with the Mexican War of Independence following for over a decade. Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand, who sponsored Columbus' voyages to the New World, used the medieval flag with the red and gold quartered lions and castles, which represented the united Spain of Leon and Castile. Ferdinand Magellan was the first European recorded to have landed in the Philippines. Borah, Woodrow. The introduction of sheep production was an ecological disaster in places where they were raised in great numbers, since they ate vegetation to the ground, preventing the regeneration of plants.[52]. The crown attempted to curb Spaniards' exploitation, banning Spaniards' bequeathing their private grants of indigenous communities' tribute and encomienda labor in 1542 in the New Laws. The spurt continued unabated until the Cavite Revolt in 1872. With the conquests of the Aztec and Inca empires, large numbers of Spaniards emigrated from the Iberian peninsula to seek their fortune or to pursue better economic conditions for themselves. Once on the mainland, where there were dense indigenous populations in urban settlements, the Spanish could build a Spanish settlement on the same site, dating its foundation to when that occurred. In Peru, the Cerro Rico's ore was processed from the local mercury mine of Huancavelica, while in Mexico mercury was imported from the Almadén mercury mine in Spain. Almost 500 years ago, Cabeza de Vaca documented his travels from this area to … Philippine Spanish Colonial Period. Though influenced by Spanish traditions from the Iberian peninsula, the culture that emerged in the colonial New World was a mixture of European, African, and local Native customs. This guide covers all colonial possessions in the Americas, so although there is an emphasis on the British Colonies, it also includes material about French and Spanish possessions. A saltire is an X figure; raguly refers to the jagged edges of the cross. The flag which flies over Castillo de San Marcos and Fort Matanzas is described in heraldry as a red saltire raguly on a white field. The Spanish expansion has sometimes been succinctly summed up as "gold, glory, God." INTRODUCTION Long before the arrival of the Spaniards, ancient Filipinos were living in scattered barangays and ruled by different chieftains. [24][25][26], The capture of the Aztec emperor Moctezuma II by Cortés was not a brilliant stroke of innovation, but came from the playbook that the Spanish developed during their period in the Caribbean. These could be sold in markets and thereby converted to cash. Explore Texas by Historical Eras Spanish Colonial 1689-1821 by Katie Whitehurst. What best defines the Spanish Colonial Era? Spanish Colonial Period of time when the Spanish built settlements in Texas which included missions, towns, presidios, and ranches 1718 Mission San Antonio de Valero was established as a supply point between the Rio Grande and East Texas The new territories extended through most of Central America and much of the south and west of what is now the United States. [139] Only the most valuable low bulk products would be exported. Cities were governed on the same pattern as in Spain and in the Indies the city was the framework of Spanish life. Judges (oidores) held "formidable power. In central Mexico, there exist minutes of the sixteenth-century meetings in Nahuatl of the Tlaxcala cabildo.

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